PIVOT initiative is a name given to the improvement approach of Six Sigma process by the Midwest Bank. Six associates were selected to manage the first phase of the PIVOT project. The Six Sigma process was set to run the process in six DMAIC steps namely: Define Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. The success of the project relies on the availability of finance, resources, competent staff and proper management of errors and risks. The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible conclusions drawn from the importance of preparation of a team and selection and assessment of PIVOT project justification.

The members forming the PIVOT initiative team comprised of different professionals and each contributed a rich expertise to the roles they played in the eventual success of the project. For instance, the project coordinator who was appointed the project manager were capable of supervising and overseeing the functions of Six Sigma’s PIVOT initiative  was the project manager to ensure its functions were run as required. Another member was given the position of a financial manager given the docket of financial impact analysis and the responsibility of purchasing equipment. This would promote accountability and eliminate possible risk exposure.

The assistant vice president together with the team’s supervisor provided the expertise representing the Commercial Purchasing Department (CPD). The officers have the ability to ensure there is accountability and assist the senior vice president and vice president of CBD. The department of project management and Six Sigma analyst positions were given to the CPD’s analyst who was also in charge of five other areas. With the experience of this member as an analyst in the in the purchasing department and hence the skills and the skills possessed has enabled the member to intellectually handle data, carry out graphical analysis and perform data stratification for the DMAIC process.

The initiation of this project and the preparation of the team selected to the define stage of this important project had to be carried out by champions such as the vice president and the senior vice president. Because they were to be accountable to all the errors that were to occur in the department, they were to thoroughly prepare the team members on how to execute all their daily responsibilities or tasks according to the laid down project guidelines (Evans& Lindsay, 2008). The importance of team member selection helps to have members who are good decision makers and have the ability to drive the organization to achieve its objectives. The selection is also essential to ensure that all the necessary departments, expertise and the customer’s voice is represented in the team. For instance, the reason why the executive is involved is imply that support for the initiative is drawn from top-down management.

One of the objectives of the CBD PIVOT project is to check the external and internal flaws which the department experienced the previous year. This amounted to a total of $ 400,000 out of which $ 280, 000 were irregularities which resulted to the losses. One of the factors that led to the inclusion of the anomaly in the project justification was to appreciate the need to fine tune the criteria for selecting the members that formed the team to the “Define” stage. Anomalies often occur as a result of poor monitoring of the process of a project. Proper selection will therefore ensure that each stage of the PIVOT project has its objectives met by the efficient and competent team members.

As a new project, there should be no room for internal errors since they culminate to major losses. For that matter, the company has targeted to reduce the losses. All projects have strict budgets to which they have to stick to strictly. Losses are mainly caused by errors committed mainly at the “Define” of a project when the objectives laid down are not realistic or the implementation of the policies laid down are not monitored well. The justification of the PIVOT project is also based on SWOT analysis. Thus, there would be strengths and weaknesses in the strengths. The inclusion of this error is acknowledgement of one of the weaknesses the project has to take into account.

As a champion, I would monitor the process of project every day right from define stage to the control stage so as to ensure the errors were minimized. Similarly, all the risks have to be managed since they would put at risk the success of the project.  In my assessment of the justification is to make sure that the project is managed within the financial budgets and for this to be done, the right people have to be on board, the resources for the project have to be used very well. In order to meet the requirements agreed upon, it is prudent as a champion to create and implement deliverables for them and create time to meet the project’s target. Finally, I will be keen to ensure the staff and those of other stake-holders which may arise as a result of the changes caused by the project.


The PIVOT Initiative at Midwest Bank is one of the projects of the Six Sigma which was initiated as a process improvement approach. The CPD, which works at the cash vault, is one Midwest’s one of the pilot projects. The team selected and prepared to take up the PIVOT project and is made up of experts and professionals beginning their roles in the “Define” stage. They contributed the skills and knowledge drawn from their previous experience necessary to run the projects in the DMAIC. The team has to ensure that project justification has no issues. However, the $ 280,000 has to be included in the justification to represent the possible errors and risks that may occur during the running of the project. As a champion, I will ensure that there is an efficient mechanism of managing of finance and other resources are well managed.















Colford, J., Fretty, P., Greengard, S., Gries, S. (2006). Executive Guide to Project Management. Project management Institute. Retrieved on July 23, 2013 from,d.d2k

Evans, J. R., & Lindsay, W. M. (2008). Managing for quality and performance excellence (7th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.

Questions and Answers

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1.  In a simple economy, people consume only 2 goods, food and clothing. The market basket of goods used to compute the CPI has 50 units of food and 10 units of clothing.


  food clothing
2002 price $4 $10
2003 price $6 $20


  1. What are the percentage increases in the price of food and in the price of clothing?




= {(6-2)/4} * 100%

= 50%



= {(20-10)/10} * 100

= 100%


  1. What is the percentage increase in the CPI? (hint: Calculate % change in total market basket for the goods from 2002 to 2003)


Food & Clothing

In 2002 (50*$4) + (10*10) = 300

In 2003 (6*50) + (20*10) = 600



= (600/300)*100%

= 200




2. List and explain in your own words the three major problems in using the CPI as a measure of the cost of living.



1. Substitution Bias – this is the fact that different goods and services have different amount of change each year. This simply implies that the CPI does not have a true reflection of consumer’s preference for changes in items that increase by small amounts as consumers will likely purchase less of items with big changes and more of items with fewer changes.

2. Quality Changes – changes in the quality of goods and services from the base year to the current year are not reflected. When the quality of any goods or services increases or decreases, this is not reflected as the value of desirability of the item also changes

3. Introduction of New Items – CPI only uses fixed items and if a country starts purchasing a different set of goods, this is not reflected in the cost of estimate to the typical consumer.







3. Henry Ford paid his workers $5 a day in 1914 when the CPI was 10. Today with the price index at 177 the $5 a day is worth how much?




= $88.5



4. Both the standard of living and the growth of real GDP per person vary widely across countries. (TRUE/FALSE)






5. What is a production function? Write an equation for a typical production function, and explain what each of the six terms represent.


A production function is defined as a function that relates the output of a firm to the amount of inputs and usually capital and labor


Production function is defined as a mathematical representation of the relationship between the quantity of inputs used in production and the quantity of output produced using the inputs.

A typical production function could be written as

Y = A F (L, K, H, N),


Y denotes the quantity of output,

L the quantity of labor,

K the quantity of physical capital,

H the quantity of human capital the quantity of natural resources, and

A is a variable that reflects the available production technology.







6. Which of the following is an example of the “brain drain”?

a.  A country’s most highly educated workers emigrate to rich countries.

b.  A country has such a poor educational system that human capital falls over time.

c.  The population of a country grows so fast that the educational system can’t keep up.

d.  A country steals patented technology from another country.





7.  In the first segment from the video, “Commanding Heights,” the famed Latin American economist Hernando de Soto tells the story of  a coffee bean farmer from Tanzania, who when asked whether he can produce proof that he owns the land, asserted that he had no official deed but that he had purchased the land from someone years ago and the fact that he lives there today is proof enough that he owns it.  In your own words, explain what De Soto’s main argument is about property rights and how it relates to a country’s standard of living?



De Soto’s main argument about property rights in third world countries like Tanzania is that they lack a national formal system of law and information; hence, property relations in such countries are governed by webs of informal norms that are based on trust which however does not extend past narrow local circles. As a result, most assists in such countries are not documented and therefore cannot ‘cannot readily be turned into capital, cannot be traded outside of narrow local circles where people know and trust each other, cannot be used as collateral for a loan and cannot be used as a share against an investment’.



8 Below is a graph showing the market for loanable funds.


Market for Loanable Funds



Assume that this economy is currently running a major deficit.  Show on the graph above what would happen to the interest rate and investment (as marked by the quantity of loanable funds available to firms) if the government pursues policies that would go from a deficit to a surplus.  EXPLAIN in your own words what policy options might the government pursue to achieve a surplus




9.  Using a graph representing the market for loanable funds, show and explain what happens to interest rates and investment if the government budget goes from a deficit to a surplus.




Market for Loanable Funds


As shown in the graph above, the economy starts in equilibrium at point E0 with interest rate r0interest rate r0 and equilibrium quantity of saving and investment at q0. If the government succeeds in obtaining a surplus, there will be more public saving in the economy at each interest rate, and the supply of loanable funds curve will shift from S0 to S1. The new equilibrium will be at E1, with a lower interest rate, r1 and a higher quantity of saving and investment, q1. Hence, if the federal government succeeds in having a surplus, interest rates will fall and investment will increase.




10. The model of the market for loanable funds shows that an investment tax credit will cause interest rates to rise and investment to rise. Yet we also suppose that higher interest rates lead to lower investment. How can these two conclusions be reconciled?     


The claim that an increase in the interest rate decreases investment supposes that only the interest rate changes and everything else is constant. The investment tax credit causes investment to rise at each interest rate. As firms want to borrow more, the interest rate will also rise. The rise in interest rates does make investment less than it would otherwise be, but unless the supply of loanable funds is vertical, the increase in investment demand from the tax credit is larger than the decrease in investment demand from the rising interest rate.






11. You are Secretary of the Treasury Jack Lew.  It’s six months into Obama’s second term as president and you receive some estimates of national accounts numbers you plan to report to the President in a cabinet meeting.  Under one set of expectations, government expenditures will be $30 billion, transfer payments will be $10 billion, and taxes will be $45 billion. Under another set of expectations, GDP will be $200 billion, taxes will be $50 billion, transfer payments will be $20 billion, consumption will be $120 billion, and investment will be $40 billion.


a. Based on these numbers in the first case there should be a surplus or deficit of how much?


Taxes – (Government expenditure + transfer payments)

= $45 – ($30 + $10)

= +$5

ð  There is a surplus of $5 billion





b. Under the second scenario, there should be a surplus or deficit of how much?


GDP + Taxes – (Transfer payments + consumption + Investments)

= $200 + $50 – ($20 + $120 + $40)

= $250 – $180

= $70


ð  There is a surplus of $70 billion






12.  The table below uses data for the year 2003 provided by the BLS and adjusted to be comparable to U.S. data. All values are in thousands. Fill in the blank entries in the table. Show your work!




















Japan 109,474 66,010 62,510 3,500 5.30 60.30
France 46,804 26,870 25,293 2,577 9.59 57.41
Germany 70,159 39,591 35,755 3,836 9.69 56.43




Labor force = (62510+3500)

= 66,010


Unemployment rate

Unemployment rate = (# of unemployed / labor force) x 100%

= (3,500/66,010) * 100%

= 5.30%



Labor-Force Participation Rate

Labor force participation rate = (labor force / adult population) x 100%

= (66,010/109.474) * 100%

                                                     = 60.30%




Adult population

From the equation; Labor force participation rate = (labor force / adult population) x 100%


57.41= (26,870/AP)*100

AP = (26870/57.41)*100

= 46,804




Adult population –unemployed

= 46,804 – (2,577 + 25,293)

= 25,293


Unemployed Rate


Unemployment rate = (# of unemployed / labor force) x 100%

= (25,293/26,870) * 100%

= 9.59






Labor Force –unemployed

= 39,591- 3,836

= 35,755




Unemployment rate = (# of unemployed / labor force) x 100%

9.69 = (x/39,591) * 100%

X = 39,591 * 9.69

= 383636.79/100

= 3,836



Labor-Force Participation Rate


= (labor force / adult population) x 100%

= (39,591/70,159) * 100%

= 56.43



13. Suppose the Bureau of Labor Statistics announced that in August, 2012, of all Massbaylians, 156,024,000 were employed, 4,765,000 were unemployed, and 84,420,000 were not in the labor force.  Please calculate


a. The Adult population of Massbaylia


Employed                   156,024,000

Unemployed                   4,765,000

Not in labor Force        84,420,000


The adult population will consist of all the above groups of people;


Employed + unemployed + Not in labor force

= 156,024,000 + 4,765,000 + 84,420,000


= 245,209,000




b. the labor force of Massbaylia


Labor force = Employed + Unemployed

= 156,024,000 + 4,765,000

= 160,789,000



  1.  the labor-force participation rate of Massbaylia


Labor force participation rate = (labor force / adult population) x 100%


= (160,789,000/245,209,000) * 100%

= 65.57%



d. The Unemployment Rate of Massbaylia


Unemployment rate = (# of unemployed / labor force) x 100%

= (4,765,000/160,789,000) * 100%

= 2.96%



Part A

1. Describe the community era of police organization and identify at least three influences that have necessitated a change in approach to law enforcement during this era.

The community era of police organization refers to the time that community policing was started. The community era of policing started in 1980 and it continues till today. The main function of this era was and still is to continue control of crime while at the same time providing a broad range of social services to the community. The police returned to the community and were more involved with the problems affecting the people. This included use of foot patrols, public relations, solving people’s problems mainly to improve the quality of life of the citizens.

Some of the influences that have necessitated a change in approach to law enforcement during this era include;

i.            Technological advances – by altering the policing side as well as the crime side and also by facilitating the commission of crimes that did not exist previously.

ii.            Field training by ensuring that people with ethical competence are picked for the job

iii.            Community involvement adult learning and value integrated training. Many changed the recruitment and selection process to identify innovative and thoughtful candidates for the job and reinforce a group think that can enforce the law approach to policing.


2. What is meant by the informal organization within a law enforcement agency, and of what importance should it be to managers?

This is a group that is formed by people within the law enforcement agency who enjoy being together or even have a good working relationship. Usually, the informal organization will operate without official sanctions although it has influence of the agency’s functions. The informal organization may harm or help the agency’s goals, cause dissention in the organization or support it.

For the managers, it will be wise for the managers to view them as a positive force and utilize them in facilitating the department’s work. This can be done by thinking the leader of the group not as a ring leader but as a person whose informal network can benefit the whole group, “in on things’ person.


3. It has been said that training must be handled as a function of management in the law enforcement field. Explain what this statement means and cite at least two examples to support your explanation.

Police executives face a myriad of difficult events during their course of work. Training ought to be handled as a function of management because in training, police managers are needed who are able to appreciate that the members of their organization as partners whom they can share consensus with. People, who can integrate instead of polarizing, people who include instead of excluding and who can implement instead of enforcing.


1. A police expert and manager is needed to make the management of stress-exposure incidents that will bring about a substantial decrease in the frequency and severity of errors in their tactical responses, and substantially lower the amount of physical or emotional injury they will suffer from those conditions during training.

2. Training of police officers to effectively manage stress exposure events will require different methods and content that the traditional methods that have been in use. As part of the management, trainers must equip officers with adaptive expertise to enable them manage their emotions, minds and physiological reactions.






Part B.

1. Law enforcement assessment centers are used to select officers eligible for promotion. Identify and briefly explain the three phases used by law enforcement assessment centers.

The assessment centers are usually organized into three phases;

i.            Testing. This is done by use of a written examination, verbal screening and psychological testing.

ii.            Oral board interview. This includes use of situational testing, individual psychological interview, and use of leaderless group discussions. During this phase, candidates confront hypothetical problems that are almost to what managers face. At the end of the second phase, candidates is ranked using information from the first and second phase and a predetermined number are selected to help complete the third phase.

iii.            Polygraph examination. This includes background checks, physical examination and staff/officer interviews.


2. What is the NLRB and what is its primary purpose?

NLRB is short form of National Labor Relations Board. NLRB is an independent federal agency that was created by the US Congress in 1935 to administer the National labor Relations also called the Wagner Act that was amended in 1947 through the Taft-Hartley Act and later in 1959 through the Landrum-Griffin Act. The NLRB was enacted by Congress to help protect the rights of employers and employees as well as to encourage a collective bargaining and restrict certain private sector observations that were seen to harm the welfare of businesses, workers and the U.S. economy.

Therefore, the primary purpose of NLRB is;

i.            To prevent unfair labor practices by unions and employers

ii.            To decide if appropriate bargaining unit exists for collective bargaining when petitioned by the employees

iii.            Determine by voting whether employees in an industry/business can be represented by labor unions.


3. Identify two key factors in conducting an effective meeting.

i.            Effective planning. Usually meetings take place without express purpose and usually little is accomplished in them. There should be a clear understanding of objectives for an effective meeting and once this is clear, other issues as to who will attend, the venue, and when can be dealt with.

ii.            Meeting the agenda. For an effective meeting, it is important that the members can be given out the agenda of the meeting in advance which can be distributed at the start of the meeting and will act as a guide for the members on what to discuss in the meeting.


4. Name the seven steps to effective problem solving.

The seven steps are as follows;

i.            Indentifying the issues.

ii.            Understanding everyone’s interests.

iii.            Listing of the possible solutions/options

iv.            Evaluating the available options

v.            Selecting an option(s)

vi.            Documenting the agreement(s)

vii.            Agreeing on contingencies, monitoring, and evaluation.


5. What is meant by community policing?

There is no one agreed full definition of community policing because community poling is a diverse and complex issue. However, community policing can be defined as the departmental philosophy of full service that offers decentralized and personalized policing and that ensures that citizens feel empowered to work in partnerships with the police at solving the community’s problems of crime, decay, disorder, and general quality of life.



6. What does the training cycle consist of?

An effective training cycle consist a four-stage cycle as listed below;

i.            Indentifying training needs. This is the first stage of the training process. Trainers require indentifying the needs of the class/student to ensure that the direction of instruction is precise and explicit to the requirements. Indentifying training needs can be through observation, interviews, critical incidents, job analysis, performance appraisal, feedback from customers, and speaking to employees.

ii.            Planning/Designing Activities. The trainer will need to plan and design the training activity according to observed needs. It usually starts with defining what training should achieve by achieving objectives tailored to the needs. The method that will be used to deliver the training will also be crucial in planning.

iii.            Implementation/Delivery Training. It is important to create the best possible environment for delivering training. It is important to make it stimulating as possible by having creative activities, making people comfortable and relaxed.

iv.            Evaluation Training. This is used to review the progress of training and ensure that learning has been achieved, put into practice, whether additional training is needed or if amendments are needed in future.


7. Briefly describe the purpose of a budget and name the three types of budgets.

A budget is defined as a master plan or simply a blueprint for action in the future. The main purpose of a budget is to make a formal estimate of future revenues and costs by giving a detailed breakdown of all revenues and costs with the main aim of attaining profits. If done right, the budget can make a company think on its goals and purpose and how to achieve them.

3 Types of Budgets

i.            Operating budget. This kind of budget presents the financial plan for each centre and reproduces operating activities that involve revenues and expenses.

ii.            Cash flow budget. They outline how an organization is going to obtain cash and how it intends to use the cash.

iii.            Capital expenditure budget. This budget outlines how an organization will utilize the cash it is going to obtain.


8. How is productivity defined within law enforcement?

Productivity is defined as a measure of output. Usually being the productivity measure in gauging economic performance at the national level.



9. Name four advances in technology that help law enforcement do a better and more efficient job.

i.            Throwable robotic cameras – a device that can be controlled remotely to allow it explore a crime scene especially if the place is too dangerous.

ii.            Gunshot detection systems – the GDS involves carefully placed electronic sensors installed in a neighborhood to help in pinpointing exact source of gunfire and is useful in areas where use of guns is frequent.

iii.            The familiar iPads – police officers can use the tablets in taking statements from suspects and witnesses especially with available crime scene apps.

iv.            Drones – the flying robotic drones are equipped with cameras that can be used by police officers to get a bird’s eye-view of a crime scene during emergency situations.


10. Explain the purpose of discipline within a law enforcement agency

Discipline in police department is an essential management tool that is necessary for the proper functioning of any organization. Although discipline is usually taken as a form of punishment, it should consist of instructing, training or teaching the affected persons. The main purpose of discipline is to facilitate coordination effort, foster orderliness & efficiency, and facilitate coordination of effort, develop character as well as self-control. 

Introduction to American Studies


Introduction to American Studies

Pacific Northwest

  1. Who were the Alaskan natives? Explain some of their ways of life that were connected to the land. Who were the first non-natives to make it to Alaska? What did they do there?

The Alaskan natives refer to the indigenous people living in Alaska who extend to include Athabascans, Yuit, Inupiat, Haida Tlingit and the Aleuts. It will be documented that these groupings are in fact based on the broad linguistic and cultural similarities of the people subsisting contiguously in the diverse regions of Alaska. Studies extend to reveal that the Alaskan natives do not represent tribal or political units nor do they refer to the units which the native populace has traditionally used to describe them. Alaskan natives are assumed to be poor, unemployed, uneducated and usually get free medical care from the government. It will be realized that gathering subsistence foodstuffs happened to be the key cultural and economic activity for most of the Alaskan natives. They also practiced hunting and fishing. The Russians were the first non-native to make it Alaska. It is believed that the Russians were hunters. They hunted the fur animals. They traded the fur they obtained from the animals with the Chinese merchants so as to obtain silk, tea and other essential goods.


  1. Why were the British and the Americans both in Pacific Northwest at the same time? Why didn’t this start a war? How did they divide the territory? How did they decide where the border would be?

The British and the Americans arrived in the Pacific Northwest at the same time during the 1780s in their dream to trade for fur. Studies disclose that both countries were in need of the rich farmlands that existed in a mild climate that where suitable for agricultural activities. They were also in need of the natural harbors of Puget Sound that could necessitate trade between either of the countries. The war between the two nations broke as a result of whom to own the Oregon territory. The territory was later divided in order to settle the disputes within the two countries. In their view to divide it they entered the Oregon Treaty that was signed in June 1846 so as to settle the competing claims of the British and Americans. The Oregon Treaty was used to decide on where the boundaries where supposed to be. It will be realized that the treaty set the British North America and the United States border at the 49th parallel but with the exemption of Vancouver Island. The island was entirely retained by the British.


  1. What is the Oregon Trail? What was at the end of the Oregon Trail? Why did people make that trek?

The Oregon Trail clearly refers to the historic east-west route that was made particularly for the large wheeled wagons and was about 3200 kilometers. Scholars extend to define it as an emigrant trail that in fact linked the River Missouri to the Oregon valleys. It is good to note that the part of the Oregon Trail that lay on the eastern part truly paved way for future states of Wyoming, Nebraska and Kansas. On the other hand the western part of the trail spanned for future states of Oregon and Idaho. It is believed that the Oregon Trail was actually laid by early traders and fur trappers that began in 1811 and ended sometimes in 1840. The trail happened to be of crucial use to the nearby inhabitants and the country as a whole. It acted as a natural corridor which enabled United States to move from the continent’s eastern part to the west coast. It necessitated the fur traders to transport their commodities.  Early missionaries used the Oregon Trail to establish churches in the Northwest. In addition, the wagon trains propelled for the contemporary transportation. The trail further turned out to be a route for cattle drives for the eastward. Recently it is considered as a historical site and classified as one of the American icons.


  1. The Pacific Northwest was one of the last places to be settled in the continental United States. Why was the Pacific Northwest considered valuable? What were the opportunities there? What were some of the industries that were started there?

The Pacific Northwest was considered one of the valuable areas of settlement due to some notable reasons. It had rich farmlands and the climate around the whole region was conducive. These necessitated opportunities for development of agricultural activities. The rich farmlands were capable of giving good yields since the climate was assumed to be reliable. It was also considered to be valuable due to the presence of fur animals which could provide fur that was highly demanded. Another key reason that made that Pacific Northwest to be valuable is the fact that it had good natural harbors. They necessitated trade with the oversea countries. It will be documented that several industries were developed in the Pacific Northwest. They extended to include aluminum, fishing, lumbering and tourism. This was as result of the readily available resources that ensured development of these industries. Agricultural related industries were also developed as result of the production of wheat, fruits barley and the rearing of dairy animals.

  1. What is speciality coffee? How did it change at the end of the twentieth century? What is its symbolic importance in American culture?

Specialty coffee was meant to refer to the best flavored beans that were produced in the exceptional microclimates. Studies disclose that specialty coffee can be held to refer to premium or gourmet coffee. Based on the American specialty coffee association any coffee that scores above 80 percent is considered to be specialty. This type of coffee is actually planted in ideal and special climates and is usually distinctive for the reason that it has a full cup taste. The unique tastes and flavors are due to the exceptional characteristics and the soil composition from which are planted. The United States market share for specialty coffee has significantly augmented to about 20 percent over the last twenty five years. The specialty coffee is believed to have changed in the twentieth century as result of outbreak of coffee diseases. It has been affected by the coffee rust which has in turn reduced its quality. According to several reports the disease broke out in 1970s which led to reduction of its expected yields necessitating several workers in the coffee industry to be laid off. It has further affected the coffee drinkers and the livelihoods of its farmers. It was used to symbolize the image, quality and value of the American culture as it was considered to be a superior brand.





California and Hawaii

  1. What were the factors that caused rapid growth in California? Who came to California? What can be found there now?

There are several reasons that explain the rapid growth that occurred in California. Through its integration with United States in the periods of World War I can be held as one of the key drivers that necessitated growth. It was now able to trade on goods that it had shortage. The increased availability of the essential commodities helped in fueling its growth as most of the basic requirements were readily available. The increased development of agriculture, industrialization and urbanization were also some of the key elements that helped in the rapid growth in California. It will be realized that the California’s population grew from 380000 people in 1860 to approximately 3.5 million people in 1920 as a result of the swelling immigration from various parts of Europe, Asia, Latin America and United States. The Native Americans, Chinese, Mexicans, Filipinos, Hindustanis and Japanese are believed to be among the people who came to California. The migrants found hardships and opportunities in the modernizing California.


  1. The Chinese and Japanese were important players in California, although their built imprint is slightly different than those in the other parts of the United States. What mark did the Chinese and Japanese leave on the American built landscape, and how does it differ from the other ethnic immigrants we’ve studied this semester?

As explained above, the Japanese and Chinese were assumed to one of the key players in California. They constituted the larger part of the immigrants and had an appraisable effect on the American landscape. It will be realized that one of the difficulties that arose in the completion of the transcontinental railroad was actually on how to obtain more laborers who were willing and able to work back-breaking and dangerous work. Both the Chinese and Japanese turned out to provide larger part of the required labor. They helped in quickening the rate of work and in the realization of the targeted project completion time. They supplied unique architectural designs that could not be obtained from the other ethnic immigrants. They also influenced on the farming systems were they used labor intensive farming systems. They also developed both Chinese and Japanese restaurants that captured in the lifestyles of these immigrants that were quite different from other ethnic groups. Through the financial support from their countries they also established businesses in major parts of the country.



  1. How was Hawaii discovered? Why was Hawaii considered valuable and how was it used? How did Hawaii change in the twentieth century?

Hawaii refers to a collection of islands which are situated in Pacific Ocean. It was discovered by certain groups of people who in turn happened to be the first to migrate to these islands. According to several historians, Polynesian settlers happened to be first people to inhibit and discover Hawaii. Studies extend to clarify that Captain James Cook was one of these early settlers who discovered Hawaii. It will be acknowledged that these islands do not form any part of a continent but they are assumed to be politically part of the US. It was considered valuable due to its production of pineapples and sugarcane which necessitated business attraction from other countries such as the United States. Its mid climate also necessitated the production of flowers and coffee beans that seemed to be some of the key sources of foreign involvement in the island. During the twentieth century, the economy of Hawaii has clearly changed due to the pineapple and sugar plantations which have in turn led to an influx of Filipino, Chinese, Portuguese and Japanese immigrants. The mix of these immigrants makes the population of Hawaii to be very diverse.


  1. How is loco moco both new and traditional? How is it a unique ethnic and regional foodway?

Loco moco refers to a traditional meal in the Hawaii’s cuisine. It will be realized that there are several variations but it can be considered to be both traditional and new. This is due to the fact that most of its ingredients are some of the major foods that make up contemporary meals.  Essential loco moco is actually required to consist of hamburger patty, brown gravy, fried egg and white rice. It will further be noted that loco moco is currently found in several eateries in Hawaii implying that it remains to be popular as ever hence one of the contemporary meals. Loco moco is not only assumed to be taken as part of breakfast but can also make a great supper and a lunch meal. The diverse ingredients and continued inventions have made loco moco to become a unique regional and ethic food way. Unlike other meals it can served at any time due to its essential ingredients.  Loco moco has actually been featured in various episodes in the Travel Channel show implying that it is one of the best meals that people are advised to take.

  1. Throughout the course we’ve been considering how groups (and their expressive traditions) form through ethnicity and region. How are the San Francisco runaways a cohesive California group that is NOT based on ethnicity (and only marginally based on region)?

San Francisco runaways are assumed to be a cohesive group that is in fact not based on ethnicity. They extend to include several children who come from diverse cultures and religions. This group is truly considered to have a unique attribute unlike other groups that are formed as a result of ethnicity and regions. San Francisco runaways are essentially unified groups that are marginally based on regions. They mostly consist of young street life runaways who in most cases do not have homes. They are actually grouped based on the regions particularly from the streets that they originate from. People from similar regions are assumed to have a similar culture and lifestyles therefore grouping the runaways based on the regions of origin would not greatly affect them. They will in turn grow with a culture that is similar to that of their aboriginal backgrounds. In general, groups in a society can be formed based on regions and not ethnicity because people from a similar region are clearly assumed to have almost similar ways of life.

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