Part A

1. Describe the community era of police organization and identify at least three influences that have necessitated a change in approach to law enforcement during this era.

The community era of police organization refers to the time that community policing was started. The community era of policing started in 1980 and it continues till today. The main function of this era was and still is to continue control of crime while at the same time providing a broad range of social services to the community. The police returned to the community and were more involved with the problems affecting the people. This included use of foot patrols, public relations, solving people’s problems mainly to improve the quality of life of the citizens.

Some of the influences that have necessitated a change in approach to law enforcement during this era include;

i.            Technological advances – by altering the policing side as well as the crime side and also by facilitating the commission of crimes that did not exist previously.

ii.            Field training by ensuring that people with ethical competence are picked for the job

iii.            Community involvement adult learning and value integrated training. Many changed the recruitment and selection process to identify innovative and thoughtful candidates for the job and reinforce a group think that can enforce the law approach to policing.


2. What is meant by the informal organization within a law enforcement agency, and of what importance should it be to managers?

This is a group that is formed by people within the law enforcement agency who enjoy being together or even have a good working relationship. Usually, the informal organization will operate without official sanctions although it has influence of the agency’s functions. The informal organization may harm or help the agency’s goals, cause dissention in the organization or support it.

For the managers, it will be wise for the managers to view them as a positive force and utilize them in facilitating the department’s work. This can be done by thinking the leader of the group not as a ring leader but as a person whose informal network can benefit the whole group, “in on things’ person.


3. It has been said that training must be handled as a function of management in the law enforcement field. Explain what this statement means and cite at least two examples to support your explanation.

Police executives face a myriad of difficult events during their course of work. Training ought to be handled as a function of management because in training, police managers are needed who are able to appreciate that the members of their organization as partners whom they can share consensus with. People, who can integrate instead of polarizing, people who include instead of excluding and who can implement instead of enforcing.


1. A police expert and manager is needed to make the management of stress-exposure incidents that will bring about a substantial decrease in the frequency and severity of errors in their tactical responses, and substantially lower the amount of physical or emotional injury they will suffer from those conditions during training.

2. Training of police officers to effectively manage stress exposure events will require different methods and content that the traditional methods that have been in use. As part of the management, trainers must equip officers with adaptive expertise to enable them manage their emotions, minds and physiological reactions.






Part B.

1. Law enforcement assessment centers are used to select officers eligible for promotion. Identify and briefly explain the three phases used by law enforcement assessment centers.

The assessment centers are usually organized into three phases;

i.            Testing. This is done by use of a written examination, verbal screening and psychological testing.

ii.            Oral board interview. This includes use of situational testing, individual psychological interview, and use of leaderless group discussions. During this phase, candidates confront hypothetical problems that are almost to what managers face. At the end of the second phase, candidates is ranked using information from the first and second phase and a predetermined number are selected to help complete the third phase.

iii.            Polygraph examination. This includes background checks, physical examination and staff/officer interviews.


2. What is the NLRB and what is its primary purpose?

NLRB is short form of National Labor Relations Board. NLRB is an independent federal agency that was created by the US Congress in 1935 to administer the National labor Relations also called the Wagner Act that was amended in 1947 through the Taft-Hartley Act and later in 1959 through the Landrum-Griffin Act. The NLRB was enacted by Congress to help protect the rights of employers and employees as well as to encourage a collective bargaining and restrict certain private sector observations that were seen to harm the welfare of businesses, workers and the U.S. economy.

Therefore, the primary purpose of NLRB is;

i.            To prevent unfair labor practices by unions and employers

ii.            To decide if appropriate bargaining unit exists for collective bargaining when petitioned by the employees

iii.            Determine by voting whether employees in an industry/business can be represented by labor unions.


3. Identify two key factors in conducting an effective meeting.

i.            Effective planning. Usually meetings take place without express purpose and usually little is accomplished in them. There should be a clear understanding of objectives for an effective meeting and once this is clear, other issues as to who will attend, the venue, and when can be dealt with.

ii.            Meeting the agenda. For an effective meeting, it is important that the members can be given out the agenda of the meeting in advance which can be distributed at the start of the meeting and will act as a guide for the members on what to discuss in the meeting.


4. Name the seven steps to effective problem solving.

The seven steps are as follows;

i.            Indentifying the issues.

ii.            Understanding everyone’s interests.

iii.            Listing of the possible solutions/options

iv.            Evaluating the available options

v.            Selecting an option(s)

vi.            Documenting the agreement(s)

vii.            Agreeing on contingencies, monitoring, and evaluation.


5. What is meant by community policing?

There is no one agreed full definition of community policing because community poling is a diverse and complex issue. However, community policing can be defined as the departmental philosophy of full service that offers decentralized and personalized policing and that ensures that citizens feel empowered to work in partnerships with the police at solving the community’s problems of crime, decay, disorder, and general quality of life.



6. What does the training cycle consist of?

An effective training cycle consist a four-stage cycle as listed below;

i.            Indentifying training needs. This is the first stage of the training process. Trainers require indentifying the needs of the class/student to ensure that the direction of instruction is precise and explicit to the requirements. Indentifying training needs can be through observation, interviews, critical incidents, job analysis, performance appraisal, feedback from customers, and speaking to employees.

ii.            Planning/Designing Activities. The trainer will need to plan and design the training activity according to observed needs. It usually starts with defining what training should achieve by achieving objectives tailored to the needs. The method that will be used to deliver the training will also be crucial in planning.

iii.            Implementation/Delivery Training. It is important to create the best possible environment for delivering training. It is important to make it stimulating as possible by having creative activities, making people comfortable and relaxed.

iv.            Evaluation Training. This is used to review the progress of training and ensure that learning has been achieved, put into practice, whether additional training is needed or if amendments are needed in future.


7. Briefly describe the purpose of a budget and name the three types of budgets.

A budget is defined as a master plan or simply a blueprint for action in the future. The main purpose of a budget is to make a formal estimate of future revenues and costs by giving a detailed breakdown of all revenues and costs with the main aim of attaining profits. If done right, the budget can make a company think on its goals and purpose and how to achieve them.

3 Types of Budgets

i.            Operating budget. This kind of budget presents the financial plan for each centre and reproduces operating activities that involve revenues and expenses.

ii.            Cash flow budget. They outline how an organization is going to obtain cash and how it intends to use the cash.

iii.            Capital expenditure budget. This budget outlines how an organization will utilize the cash it is going to obtain.


8. How is productivity defined within law enforcement?

Productivity is defined as a measure of output. Usually being the productivity measure in gauging economic performance at the national level.



9. Name four advances in technology that help law enforcement do a better and more efficient job.

i.            Throwable robotic cameras – a device that can be controlled remotely to allow it explore a crime scene especially if the place is too dangerous.

ii.            Gunshot detection systems – the GDS involves carefully placed electronic sensors installed in a neighborhood to help in pinpointing exact source of gunfire and is useful in areas where use of guns is frequent.

iii.            The familiar iPads – police officers can use the tablets in taking statements from suspects and witnesses especially with available crime scene apps.

iv.            Drones – the flying robotic drones are equipped with cameras that can be used by police officers to get a bird’s eye-view of a crime scene during emergency situations.


10. Explain the purpose of discipline within a law enforcement agency

Discipline in police department is an essential management tool that is necessary for the proper functioning of any organization. Although discipline is usually taken as a form of punishment, it should consist of instructing, training or teaching the affected persons. The main purpose of discipline is to facilitate coordination effort, foster orderliness & efficiency, and facilitate coordination of effort, develop character as well as self-control.